On July 7, 1937, Japan manufactured an excuse and attacked the Chinese army at the Marco Polo Bridge(Lukouchiao), in Wanping County, Hopeh Province. The Sino-Japanese war thus broke out. Under the leadership of President Chiang Kai-shek, the Chinese armed forces and people fought bravely against the Japanese. In eight years, there were more than 40,000 battles, incurring heavy casualties on the Chinese side. In 1945, with the Japanese unconditional surrender, the war was finally over.